A healthy diet is important during pregnancy, but you may have to rethink the types of foods you consume. Pregnant women need an abundance of nutrients, like folic acid, but should err on the side of caution when it comes to eating certain foods.
"We all need to be eating a healthy diet," says Sean Edmunds, MD, an OBGYN with HCA sister facility St. Mark's Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah. "Pregnant women need to have well-balanced nutrition, not only for themselves, but for the health of the baby."
There's a lot to think about during a pregnancy, and knowing which foods are best for your baby can be tricky. With the help of Dr. Edmunds, we'll break down the foods you should purge from your pantry and those you should add to your plate.
Skip: raw or smoked seafood
Raw fish (even sushi-grade slices) pose a risk of foodborne illness, like listeria, to the general population. For most, the disease causes symptoms like nausea, vomiting, muscle aches and fever, but pregnant women are at a higher risk for complications and even death of the baby. According to Edmunds, maternal foodborne illnesses pose specific risks to the baby, including miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth and severe health problems following delivery. You don't need to boycott your favorite sushi joint for the next nine months, just choose cooked entrées and vegetable sushi rolls.
Be wary of smoked salmon, too. Refrigerated smoked seafood, like lox or nova-style salmon, may not be safe either. If you've got a hankering, reach for canned or shelf-stable varieties or cook your smoked seafood before digging in.
Skip: undercooked meat
Like raw seafood, undercooked meat and poultry pose a serious risk of foodborne illness, like Salmonella and toxoplasmosis. In addition to uncomfortable symptoms, including fever, body aches, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, these sicknesses can be detrimental to a woman's pregnancy. Foodborne illness can increase a woman's risk of stillbirth and miscarriage, and if toxoplasmosis is transferred to the baby during pregnancy, it can cause seizures, eye infections and jaundice after birth.
To protect mother and child, order well done meat and poultry and check your food before taking a bite. Your chicken breast should be without a pink center, and slicing into your filet mignon should reveal no more than a hint of rose in the middle. When grilling at home, steaks and roasts should be cooked until the internal temperature reaches 145 degrees Fahrenheit, ground beef should register 160 degrees and poultry 165 degrees.
Skip: unpasteurized dairy
Soft cheeses – like brie, gorgonzola and feta – are often made using raw milk, which poses increased risks of foodborne illness, especially for pregnant women. Raw milk products can harbor bacteria like Salmonella, E. coli and Listeria, all of which can cause uncomfortable – and at times, dangerous – symptoms. As a general rule, "you want to avoid any unpasteurized dairy," Edmunds says. "Some women are told to avoid soft cheeses," he adds, "but pasteurized varieties are safe."
Not all dairy is a no-go during pregnancy. In fact, hard cheeses like American, cheddar and Swiss are rich in calcium, an essential nutrient for expecting mothers, and are typically made with pasteurized milk. Pregnant women can also eat soft cheeses if the package specifies the product is pasteurized.
Skip: deli meats
Another common carrier of Listeria is deli meat. Pregnant women are ten times more likely to contract Listeria, but they might not present with any symptoms. However, they can still pass the infection on to their fetuses. Ham, salami and other cured meats are staples in many lunchtime sandwiches, but given the devastating risks of contracting the disease – for mother and baby – it is best to avoid them.
Skipping these meats, along with hot dogs and premade meat based salads, is the best way to safeguard your developing child. If you can't live without deli meats, they can be heated until they reach at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit to kill any present bacteria.
Raw sprouts make a crunchy addition to salads, sandwiches and stir fries, but they can be laced with bacteria like E. coli and Salmonella. Although these bacteria pose a risk to the general public, certain populations like pregnant women and children are advised to avoid raw sprouts of any kind. Even gently cooked sprouts can be risky. Only cooking them at high temperatures can kill dangerous bacteria.
Before cooking and consuming sprouts or other vegetables, Edmunds recommends giving them a thorough rinse. Washing your produce helps reduce the risk of contracting toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection which can result in stillbirth or miscarriage.
There is no amount of alcohol known to be safe during pregnancy and no harmless time to drink it, according to the Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC). A pregnant women who consumes alcohol passes it to her baby, which can up the risk for stillbirth, miscarriage and a range of disabilities known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol-related disorders affect up to 40,000 U.S. children each year.
Alcohol can interfere with a baby's development, and consumption can lead to facial abnormalities, like a cleft palate, learning disabilities, speech and language delays or kidney, heart and bone problems.
It's not too late to stop, even if you've been drinking throughout your pregnancy. The sooner you stop sipping, the better off you and your baby will be. Services, like Alcoholics Anonymous meetings and local alcohol treatment centers, are available. Don't hesitate to speak with your healthcare provider about getting help.
Each of our bodies needs ample quantities of specific nutrients, like calcium and folate, but pregnant women often need a bit more. Folate and folic acid is crucial for expectant women, as it can help prevent birth defects of the brain, spine and spinal cord. "Folic acid is a building block for DNA," Edmunds says. "Where the baby is rapidly growing, folic acid is important for development."
Calcium is essential for the healthy growth and development of the baby's bones, teeth and heart. Loading your diet with nutrient-rich foods like spinach is a good way to consume the daily recommendations.
Most doctors will still recommend taking a prenatal vitamin that contains these and other nutrients, but adding greens like spinach into your daily meals, in the form of salads, soups, pastas and smoothies, can help you reach your goal of 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium and 400 to 800 micrograms (mcg) of folate.
Savor: Beans and lentils
Protein and iron are found abundantly in beans and lentils. The body uses protein to help grow and maintain bone, muscle and skin cells, "so not getting enough protein can affect development, and hurt the woman's health," Edmunds says.
The proper portion of protein is different for everyone. The recommended daily allowance is at least 8 grams (g) of protein for every 20 pounds of body weight. Still, pregnant women should consume more, about 71 g, to help promote fetal growth. Per cooked cup, black beans contain 15 g of protein and lentils have a whopping 18 g.
These plant-based proteins also contain a healthy dose of iron, with around 4 mg in a serving of beans and nearly 7 mg in a cup of lentils. Iron is needed to help create hemoglobin, the red blood cells responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. Expectant mothers need about 10 mg more than non-pregnant women, and should aim to consume 27 mg per day.
Savor: low-mercury seafood
Not all seafood is safe for pregnant women, but certain low-mercury options can be a healthy dietary addition. Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of mercury, but some have more than others. For a majority of people, consuming fish, even with high levels of this metallic substance, doesn't pose a major health risk. Pregnant women should be wary though, as too much mercury can hinder the development of the baby's nervous system.
"There are certain fish to avoid because of high mercury content, but these are rare things, like shark, swordfish and mackerel," Edmunds says. Even certain types of tuna contain high levels of mercury, so speak with your healthcare provider about which kinds are safe to consume.
But how much is safe? The U.S. Food and Drug Administration says consuming 8 to 12 ounces a week is safe, and Edmunds suggests the same – two or three weekly servings. If you're concerned, it doesn't hurt to consult your doctor as well.
This cruciferous vegetable is loaded with nutrients your body needs – whether you're expecting a bundle of joy or not. Broccoli contains, 57 mcg of folate and 43 mg of calcium per uncooked cup. Respectively, these nutrients help prevent birth defects and build strong bones and teeth. Broccoli also contains a healthy dose of fiber – 2.5 g per cup, which helps keep your digestion in check and can aid in constipation relief. Constipation, characterized by infrequent bowel movements or trouble passing stool, affects about half of all women at some point during pregnancy.
Enjoy in moderation: coffee
You have heard the unfortunate myth that coffee is off limits during pregnancy, and to some degree, it might be. Much research has debated the effects of caffeine and miscarriage risks, but results remain inconclusive. Some research has linked excess caffeine consumption, even prior to conception, to an increased risk of miscarriage, but experts are still not clear about how much is too much.
Recent analyses suggest even the amount of caffeine thought to be safe during pregnancy, between 200 and 300 mg per day, might be associated with miscarriage. Edmunds believes a daily cup is OK for mother and baby, but it's probably best to consult your physician.
Enjoy in moderation: soda
Sugary soda isn't likely a healthy drink option for anyone, but pregnant women may want to be especially cautious of their intake. When consumed daily, sugar-sweetened soft drinks have been linked to increased risks of preterm birth, asthma and trouble with memory and learning. Some research suggests the same risks may also be associated with regular consumption of diet soda.
The results of this research are not conclusive, but it may be best for your baby's safety and your own health to limit your soda intake. "There's no known deficit of having a soda a day, but limiting sugar-sweetened sodas and artificially-sweetened sodas is recommended," Edmunds says. Pregnant women who drink soda should follow the same caffeine consumption guidelines as coffee drinkers – no more than 200 mg per day.